jeudi 29 mars 2018

Rembrandt et l'Inde

A gauche : Shah Jahan (detail), c. 1656–58. Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Leonard C. Hanna, Jr.  Fund 1978.38. Photograph © The Cleveland Museum of Art.
A droite: Jujhar Singh Bundela Kneels in Submission to Shah Jahan (detail), c.1630. Bichitr (Mughal, active 1615–1650).
Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library. Image © Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin (CBL In 07A.16).
Text and design © 2018 J. Paul Getty Trust

Réunir vingt des vingt-trois dessins d'une série de dessins originaux de Rembrandt relève de la gageure. Le J. Paul Getty Museum de Los Angeles y est parvenu.
C'est d'autant plus méritoire que ces dessins ne sont pas dans la manière habituelle de Rembrandt. Le Maître d'Amsterdam vieillissant y étudie les canons et les codes de la peinture de l'Empire Moghol.
L'exposition Rembrandt and the inspiration of India confronte pour la première fois, depuis plus de 3 siècles, ces dessins de Rembrandt et des oeuvres qui ont pu l'inspirer.

Commissaire de l'exposition : Stephanie Schrader.



Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Shah Jahan and His Son, ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown wash with scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
6.9 × 7.1 cm (2 11/16 × 2 13/16 in.)
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Gift of J. G. Bruijnvan der Leeuw,
Muri, RP-T-1961-83 EX.2018.3.38

Govardhan Indian (Mughal), active 1596–ca. 1645
Shah Jahan Enthroned with His Son Dara Shikoh, ca. 1630–40
Opaque watercolor and gold on paper
Page: 47.8 × 34.2 cm (18 13/16 × 13 1/2 in.); painting: 29 × 19.8 cm (11 7/16 × 7 13/16 in.)
San Diego, The San Diego Museum of Art, Edwin Binney 3rd Collection, 1990.347
Image: San Diego Museum of Art, USA / Bridgeman Images EX.2018.3.50
Communiqué de Presse du J. Paul Getty Museum :
Among the most surprising aspects of Rembrandt’s prodigious output are twenty-three surviving drawings closely based on portraits made by artists working in Mughal India. These drawings mark a striking diversion for this quintessentially Dutch “Golden Age” artist, the only time he made a careful and extensive study of art from a dramatically different culture. Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India, on view March 13 – June 24, 2018, at the J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, explores for the first time the artist’s Mughal drawings, exhibiting them alongside the Mughal paintings that inspired them to assess the impact of Indian art and culture on Rembrandt’s artistic interests and working process as a draftsman.
“Rembrandt may be one of the most famous painters in European art history, but there are still remarkable discoveries to be made about his work,” says Timothy Potts, director of the J. Paul Getty Museum. “This exhibition is a case in point, demonstrating how Rembrandt turned to the art of India to produce some of his most intriguing images. This vivid example of cultural exchange reminds us how artists on different continents take inspiration from one another, a reality that of course continues to this very day.”
The exhibition pairs twenty of Rembrandt’s surviving drawings depicting Mughal emperors, princes, and courtiers with Indian paintings and drawings of similar compositions, which had been brought to Amsterdam from the Dutch trading post in Surat. Rembrandt’s portraits reveal how his contact with Mughal art inspired him to draw in a newly refined and precise style. 

“The critical eye and attentive curiosity Rembrandt turned towards Mughal portrait conventions still captivates viewers today. At this late stage in his career, around 1656-1661, this meticulous rendering is exceptional,” says Stephanie Schrader, Curator of Drawings and organizer of the exhibition.
The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (r. 1627-1658) was well known for his patronage of the arts — most notably the building of the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan’s rule of Mughal India spanned the years that Rembrandt worked in Leiden and Amsterdam. In his eight drawings of Shah Jahan, more than he made of any other Mughal ruler, Rembrandt carefully studied the trappings of imperial magnificence, as seen in on Horseback (Shah Jahan) (about 1656-61). The poetic claim that Shah Jahan was “Royal Rider of the Piebald Steed of the World” was not lost on Rembrandt.

Rembrandt’s drawings after Mughal compositions constitute the largest group, by far, of his copies after other works of art. Moreover, they are his only surviving drawings on expensive Asian paper, which suggests the high value the artist himself placed on them. Shikoh (about 1656-60) is quite different from the typically known “late Rembrandt” style of drawing. His careful attention to details of clothing, jewelry, turbans, and footwear pays tribute to Mughal artists’ exceptional artifice. 

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
An Indian Archer, ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown and gray washes with red wash,
white opaque watercolor, and scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
18.8 × 13.1 cm (7 3/8 × 5 3/16 in.)
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, RP-T-1897-A-3203 EX.2018.3.35

Bichitr - Indian (Mughal), active 1615–50
Folio from Minto Album,Jujhar Singh Bundela Kneels in Submission to
Shah Jahan, ca. 1630–40
Opaque watercolor and gold on paper
Page: 39 × 27 cm (15 3/8 × 10 5/8 in.); painting: 26.4 × 16.2 cm (10 3/8 × 6 3/8 in.)
Dublin, Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library, CBL In 07A.16
Image © Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin (CBL In 07A.16) EX.2018.3.29


Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
The Emperor Akbar and Jahangir in Apotheosis, after a Mughal Miniature , ca. 1656–61
Brown ink with brown wash with white opaque watercolor and
scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
21.2 × 17.6 cm (8 3/8 × 6 15/16 in.)
Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans van Beuningen (former collection Koenigs), R 36 (PK)
Photo: Studio Tromp, Rotterdam EX.2018.3.39

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Two Mughal Noblemen (Shah Jahan and Dara Shikoh), ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown and gray wash with white opaque
watercolor and scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
17.2 × 21.4 cm (6 3/4 × 8 7⁄16 in.)
London, The British Museum, 1895,0915.1281
Image © The Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved EX.2018.3.9

On almost every level, Rembrandt and the Indian court painters operated in completely different worlds. Yet such differences did not prevent these innovative artists from appropriating foreign imagery to reflect upon and enrich their own more familiar artistic practice and culture. 

Attributed to Bichitr Indian (Mughal), active 1615–50
Folio from the St. Petersburg Album, Akbar and Jahangir in Apotheosis , ca. 1640
Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper
Page: 48.4 × 33 cm (19 1/16 × 13 in.); painting: 27.5 × 16.8 cm (10 13/16 × 6 5/8 in.)
Private Collection EX.2018.3.16

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
A Mughal Nobleman Standing (Prince Daniyal), ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown wash with red chalk and white opaque watercolor on Asian paper
18.4 × 11.2 cm (7¼ × 47⁄16 in.)
London, The British Museum, Bequeathed by George Salting, 1910,0212.182
Image © The Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved EX.2018.3.7

Muhammad Mushin Indian (Mughal)
Jahangir , ca. 1630–35
Opaque watercolor and gold on paper
Painting: 31.1 × 21 cm (12 1/4 × 8 1/4 in.)
Private Collection EX.2018.3.15 
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Jahangir, ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown, gray, and red washes with scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
18.3 × 12 cm (7 3/16 × 4 3/4 in.)
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, De Bruijn-van der Leeuw Bequest, Muri, Switzerland, RP-T-1961-82
EX.2018.3.36

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
A Deccani Nobleman Standing (Muhammad ‘Adil Shah of Bijapur), ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown and gray wash with scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
19.6 × 15.8 cm (711⁄16 × 6¼ in.)
London, The British Museum, 1895,0915.1280
Image © The Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved EX.2018.3.8

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Indian Ruler (Shah Shuja‘), ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown wash on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
23 × 18 cm (91⁄16 × 71⁄8 in.)
Vienna, Albertina Museum, 24471 EX.2018.3.1

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn Dutch, 1606–1669
Shah Jahan, ca. 1656–61
Dark brown ink and dark brown wash with scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
22.5 × 17.1 cm (8 7/8 × 6 3/4 in.)
Cleveland, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Leonard C. Hanna Jr. Fund, 1978.38
Image © The Cleveland Museum of Art EX.2018.3.41

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Shah Jahan and Dara Shikoh , ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown wash with white opaque watercolor and scratching out
on Asian paper toned with light brown wash. 21.3 x 17.8 cm (8 3/8 x 7 in.)
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
85.GA.44

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
A Mughal Nobleman on Horseback (Shah Jahan), ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown and gray wash with red chalk wash and red
and yellow chalk lightly toned with light brown wash on Asian paper
20.5 × 17.7 cm (8 1⁄16 × 6 15⁄16 in.)
London, The British Museum, Bequeathed by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode, PD Gg,2.262
Image © The Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved EX.2018.3.10

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Portrait of Aurangzeb (after a Mughal painting) , ca. 1656–61
Brown ink with brown wash, black chalk, white opaque watercolor,
and scratching out on Asian paper; with later additions in gray wash and scratching out
18 × 7.3 cm (7 1/16 × 2 7/8 in.)
Cambridge, Harvard Art Museums / Fogg Museum, Bequest of Charles A. Loeser, 1932.366
Imaging Department © President and Fellows of Harvard College EX.2018.3.55

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Shah Jahan, Standing with a Flower and a Sword, ca. 1656–61
Brown ink with brown wash on Asian paper with horizontal strip added along bottom edge,
17.8 × 10.1 cm (7 × 4 in.)
Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt, 592 EX.2018.3.21

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669)
Four Mullahs Seated under a Tree (Sheikh Husain Jami, Sheikh Husain
Ajmeri, Sheikh Muhammad Mazandarani, and Sheikh Miyan Mir), ca. 1656–61
Brown ink and brown and gray wash with scratching out on Asian paper toned with light brown wash
19.4 × 12.4 cm (75⁄8 × 47⁄8 in.)
London, The British Museum, 1895,0915.1275
Image © The Trustees of the British Museum. All rights reserved EX.2018.3.5


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